Fungible vs. Non-fungible: Understanding the Difference


In the world of finance and digital assets, the terms “fungible” and “non-fungible” have gained significant attention in recent years. With the rise of blockchain technology and the emergence of non-fungible tokens (NFTs), it is important to understand the fundamental differences between fungible and non-fungible assets. In this post, we will explore the concepts of fungibility and non-fungibility, their applications in various domains, and the implications they have on ownership and value.

Fungibility: Interchangeable Units

Fungibility refers to the property of a good or commodity whose units are interchangeable [1]. Fungible items have equivalent amounts that can be easily exchanged with one another. Examples of fungible assets include traditional currencies, such as the US dollar or the Euro, where one unit of currency is interchangeable with another of the same value. Other fungible assets include commodities like gold, crude oil, company shares, bonds, and currencies.

It is important to note that fungibility should not be confused with liquidity, which refers to the ease of exchanging a good for money or another good. While money is fungible, as it can be readily exchanged for goods and services, not all fungible assets are equally liquid. For example, certain bonds or shares may have low liquidity due to limited trading volume or market demand.

However, some assets, like diamonds and gems, are not perfectly fungible due to variations in cuts, colors, grades, and sizes. While diamonds may have similar properties, each diamond is unique, and their individual characteristics affect their value and interchangeability. Consequently, fungible assets are generally more easily divided, parallelized, and traded than non-fungible assets.

Non-fungible Tokens (NFTs): Unique Digital Assets

In contrast to fungible assets, non-fungible tokens (NFTs) represent unique digital assets recorded on a blockchain [2]. NFTs are commonly used to certify ownership and authenticity of digital files, including artwork, photos, videos, and audio. Unlike fungible assets, NFTs cannot be easily exchanged on a one-to-one basis due to their uniqueness and individual characteristics.

NFTs can be created by anyone without extensive coding skills and are typically bought, sold, and traded on specialized platforms. While NFTs provide a public certificate of authenticity, it is important to note that owning an NFT does not imply copyright ownership or intellectual property rights. The legal rights surrounding NFTs are still evolving and can vary between jurisdictions.

The NFT market experienced significant growth in 2021, attracting attention and high prices for digital art and other collectibles. However, it faced a market correction in 2022, highlighting the volatility and speculative nature of this emerging asset class. Despite the fluctuations, NFTs have found applications in various domains beyond art auctions, including gaming, virtual real estate, and digital identity verification.

Non-Fungible Tokens are rapidly growing

Applications and Implications

The concepts of fungibility and non-fungibility have implications in several domains, including finance, law, and technology. Let’s explore some of these applications in more detail:

1. Financial Markets: In financial markets, securities play a vital role in raising capital for commercial enterprises and governments [3]. Securities encompass a wide range of financial instruments, including equities (stocks), fixed income instruments (bonds), and derivatives. While equities represent ownership shares in a company, bonds and other fixed income instruments represent debt obligations.

Equity securities are typically fungible, allowing investors to buy and sell shares on public stock exchanges. These shares are interchangeable and represent proportional ownership in the underlying company. Debt securities, such as bonds, can also be fungible when they have identical terms and conditions.

2. Legal Disputes: Fungibility can be a crucial factor in legal disputes, particularly when determining the remedy for a breach of rights, obligations, or property interests. The fungibility of the underlying asset can influence the available remedies and the court’s decision. For example, if a fungible asset is damaged or wrongfully withheld, the court may award compensation based on the market value or the cost of replacement.

3. Supply Chains and Logistics: Fungibility is often a consideration in supply chain management and logistics. In industries where goods or raw materials are sourced from multiple suppliers, ensuring the fungibility of those inputs can streamline operations and reduce complexity. For example, in the oil industry, crude oil is a fungible commodity that can be easily traded and refined by multiple refineries.

4. Blockchain and Smart Contracts: The advent of blockchain technology has facilitated the development of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) and smart contracts, which have transformed various industries. NFTs leverage the unique properties of blockchain to certify the authenticity, ownership, and provenance of digital assets. Smart contracts, powered by blockchain, enable the automatic execution of predefined terms and conditions, providing transparency and eliminating the need for intermediaries in certain transactions.

Fungible vs Non-Fungible, Conclusion

In conclusion, understanding the difference between fungible and non-fungible assets is essential in today’s digital landscape. Fungible assets, such as traditional currencies and commodities, have interchangeable units, allowing for easy exchange. On the other hand, non-fungible tokens (NFTs) represent unique digital assets that cannot be easily exchanged due to their individual characteristics.

While fungible assets have widespread applications in finance, law, and supply chains, non-fungible tokens have emerged as a new form of digital ownership and certification. However, it is important to recognize that the legal rights surrounding NFTs are still evolving and can vary between jurisdictions.

As technology continues to advance and new use cases for fungible and non-fungible assets emerge, it is crucial to stay informed and adapt to the changing landscape of digital ownership and value.


  1. The Evolution of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs): From Early Blockchain Experiments to Mainstream Adoption
  2. Fungibility – Wikipedia
  3. Non-fungible token – Wikipedia
  4. Security (finance) – Wikipedia
Sarah Wright

Sarah Wright

Sarah is a freelance writer with a passion for all things crypto and NFTs. She loves how NFTs are empowering artists and creators to take control of their own distribution and royalties. In addition to writing about NFTs, she’s also an avid collector and enjoys discovering new and emerging artists on various NFT platforms.

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